James Hooten, a service manager with Hargis Electric, LLC in Paris, Texas, found this mess at one of the local churches in his area of the country.

These exposed wires and connections and lack of a junction box lead me to believe this work was performed by an "unqualified" installer. We should consider the following basic rules in reviewing this installation.

As noted in 314.16 [Number of Conductors in Outlet, Device, and Junction Boxes, and Conduit Bodies], "Boxes and conduit bodies shall be of sufficient size to provide free space for all enclosed conductors. In no case shall the volume of the box, as calculated in 314.16(A), be less than the fill calculation as calculated in 314.16(B). The minimum volume for conduit bodies shall be as calculated in 314.16(C). The provisions of this section shall not apply to terminal housings supplied with motors or generators." An Informational Note at the end of this section directs us to 430.12 for volume requirements of motor or generator terminal housings.

In addition, the requirements in this section also note that "boxes and conduit bodies enclosing conductors 4 AWG or larger shall also comply with the provisions of 314.28."

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