Throw the Book at Them

Why? Because this installation is a crime. For starters, I would like to point out the lack of continuity between the equipment grounding conductors and the metal cable jackets/metal boxes. The green wire on the right is dangling in the air. The metal-clad cables are not connected to the boxes. The loose wiring plate on the back of the recessed luminaire can also present a real shock hazard, because all of these violations leave many metal parts ungrounded and unbonded.

Illustrated Catastrophes: 300.10, 314.23, 314.25, 320.30(D)(3), 330.30(D)(2), 300.6, 110.11, Table 300.5, 300.5(D)(1) and (4)

Section 300.10 requires metal cables, such as MC, to be mechanically and electrically connected to the metal boxes and fittings. The box flopping around above the ceiling is a violation of 314.23, which requires boxes to be supported and secured by one of the many methods permitted, including structural mounting — or by fastening to suspended ceiling framing members or using tie wires. The missing box cover is a violation of 314.25, which requires boxes to be covered with a plate, cover, lampholder, or fixture canopy. It also appears as though there are no supports for the AC or MC cables. They are required to be supported within 6 ft of each box in accordance with 320.30(D)(3)and 330.30(D)(2), respectively.

 

Buried Alive

Illustrated Catastrophes: 300.10, 314.23, 314.25, 320.30(D)(3), 330.30(D)(2), 300.6, 110.11, Table 300.5, 300.5(D)(1) and (4)

The general-purpose 4-in. octagonal box used for this installation won’t do a very good job of keeping the dirt and moisture away from the connection points in this circuit. Boxes used in wet locations like this must be listed in accordance with 314.25. Section 300.6 requires boxes to be made of materials that will be suitable for the environment in which they will be installed. The rust is a clear indication of this violation.

Although it’s difficult to see them in this photo, the NM cable connectors used to connect the UF to the box also are not suitable for this type of installation. Section 110.11 similarly requires equipment in wet locations to be specifically made for the location. According to Column 1 of Table 300.5, the minimum cover depth required for direct-buried UF cable is 18 in. to
24 in. In order to comply with the requirements of 300.5(D)(1) and (4) — where the cable emerges from grade — it is required to be protected by an enclosure or raceway, such as RMC, IMC, Schedule 80 PVC or equivalent protection. This protection requirement extends to 8 ft above finished grade. The UF in this installation could easily be damaged by someone walking near the fence and stepping on the cable.