How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn't identify? Here's your chance to moonlight as an electrical inspector and second-guess someone else's work from the safety of your living room or office. Joe, who has a knack for finding shoddy electrical work, did the dirty work and found this mess. Now it's your turn to identify the violation.
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I see these types of installations where non-electricians are hired to dig trenches and install underground raceways. Many times, these types of street lighting, service lateral, feeder, and branch circuit projects are being done for various city- or state-funded projects. I am sure this specific installation was not inspected, nor were any permits issued for this work. No qualified inspector I know would approve the use of duct tape as a raceway coupling!
A review of the underground installation requirements of 300.5 would be a good place to start. This section of the Code discusses minimum cover requirements, protection from damage, raceway seals, and backfill requirements. In addition, I see no ribbon or marker above this raceway to warn someone of its location.