Photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States are most commonly interconnected with electric utility systems as opposed to being set up as stand-alone or off-grid systems. The most common types of PV systems are the grid-direct variety — or those that do not use energy storage, namely batteries. These grid-direct systems have an inverter connected directly to the PV array on the DC side and are directly connected to the electric utility system on the AC side. The inverters vary ...

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