Article 80 is in Annex H, and it addresses five major functions:
Inspections aren’t just for construction projects. It’s the prerogative of the AHJ to interpret the NEC and establish whether any electrical equipment (or its installation) is dangerous to property or human life. It is not true that you can hide behind a technicality or “creative interpretation” of the NEC to overrule the AHJ. The AHJ determines whether such a violation exists and has the legal authority to enforce any such determination. The AHJ can have the facility disconnected from its power source [80.13(2)].
The AHJ can enter and inspect the facility, at all reasonable times, for such violations. Note that “reasonable” is also defined by the AHJ. You can refuse entry, except in the case of an emergency. If you refuse, the AHJ can obtain a warrant and that is not going to foster the best environment for resolving any issues.