Included in this category are energy management, security, and fire alarm systems; all types of de sectors; controls such as time clocks and thermostats; and all types of fans.

Equipment used in high-rise dwellings, and in commercial and institutional buildings for fire safety, security, patient care, HVAC, and energy management purposes has grown significantly more sophisticated. In many cases, it is a system rather than a series of components that must be evaluated. Wiring needed to tie the "packages" together at the site has correspondingly increased as a result of the greater equipment sophistication.

Fire alarm and security systems

Fire detection and alarm systems represent a small fraction of total engineering and construction costs for a building. However, these systems provide essential protection to occupants and property against the ravages of fire. The design of these systems requires careful risk analysis and detailed system planning to ensure that fires, or the incipient beginnings of a fire, are rapidly detected and reported so that appropriate actions can be initiated.

The system status/command center provides information on the exact location of a fire. Once reported, appropriate alarms are initiated and other actions take place, such as adjusting the pertinent HVAV dampers for smoke control, recalling all elevators to the ground floor, and transmitting a signal to the fire department to alert them of an emergency.

Fire detection systems can be highly automated and programmed to alert key personnel, fire departments, ambulances, and to automatically release fire suppression agents if the pattern of alarms indicates that a fire is in progress. Printout and data-logging features are often part of such a system. Of course, the key to fast and accurate detection are the various types of detectors used throughout a facility. Depending on the location and application, smoke, ionization, and heat detectors monitor specific areas within a building and report status directly back to the central system. They will even indicate at what floor an elevator controller should not stop its elevators in the event of a fire.

Closely related to fire-safety systems are security systems that guard a facility against unauthorized entry. Video cameras and monitors are often used to provide visual control of roadways, parking areas, fence lines, lobbies, hallways, and elevators. Watchmen stations are integrated to assure that specific routes are covered by security personnel. Motion detectors, infrared heat sensors,and othermonitoring devices are combined with audible signals and light controls to provide warning and scare off intruders. this approach is the application of energy-management systems to monitor and control the use of energy within a facility. These systems can vary from relatively simple multicircuit programmable timers to elaborate computer-based systems that monitor demand, determine the most cost-effective operation of HVAC equipment, shed load, and perform other various functions. These systems can also integrate many security and fire detection system operations .

Control components, such as timers and thermostats, can help conserve energy by limiting power usage or space air conditioning within a building to working hours or periods of high occupancy.

HVAC equipment

Electric heating and ventilation equipment that provide occupant comfort include ceiling fans, electric space heating units, air conditioners, and thermostats. These fairly simple units are generally used for individual occupancies, and their large system equivalents serve commercial and other facilities. Convection and radiant heaters, which include baseboard, wall, and ceiling units perform quietly and take up little space. Currently, heat pumps are finding greater application in residential and small commercial spaces because of their versatility.