Nicholas Kleyn, an electrical contractor in Grand Rapids, Mich., discovered this situation while estimating repairs needed in a church that was built in 1846. He said that this looked like a service upgrade that replaced older equipment. Whoever installed this new equipment cut off the 2-inch metal raceway, and installed the new panel into an empty hole with no connector, locknuts or bonding bushing. The main lugs were also tapped to supply another panelboard with some old 60A rated Type SE cable that had “no protection” at all.

Editor's Note: This violates simple rules found in Articles 240, 250 and 300 that call for proper overcurrent protection, grounding and bonding and connections for a service.