The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) contains many requirements for your employer to meet. But you have some responsibilities, too. Under this federal regulation, you are responsible for:
Knowing the health and safety information related to the chemicals you use.
Using that health and safety information.
Using your safety training on the job.
So, what happens if you violate the regulations by not meeting your responsibilities? One obvious possibility is you'll end up hurting yourself or someone else. There may be other civil penalties in the event of an injury. For example, if your negligence or willful misconduct leads to:
Injuring you, then your reward is reduced
Someone else, then you may be at the losing end of civil litigation.
The legal consequences are real, but keeping you and your coworkers safe should be what drives you to understand chemicals you use or encounter on the job.