Traditionally, the steps used to reduce the energy footprint of buildings follows a sequence of steps: retro-commissioning, energy audit, energy retrofit, deep energy retrofits, measurement and verification, operations, and maintenance. From an economic standpoint, each step requires the building owner to allocate substantial up-front capital by preplanning the expense, using a sinking fund, or pulling capital from contingency reserves. More often than not, due to the relative risk and ...

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