The Department of Energy has identified 10 subject areas where an emerging technology can improve the performance of HID light sources, and some are commercially available today, such as the electrodeless lamp. Continuing research on materials, coatings, arc tube shapes, electrodes, fill chemistry, lamp/ballast waveforms, and thermal management should also lead to a boost in MH performance. Mercury-free MH lamps are currently available as automobile head lights; however, the elimination of the mercury fill results in lower efficacy. Nevertheless, this reduction in efficacy will hopefully be overcome in the future. Some lighting industry leaders would like to see the Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program expanded to include HID products.