The path of lighting products continues to wend toward slimmer fluorescent lamps, refined electronic ballasts, and improved metal-halide lamps. Over the years, the T8 fluorescent lamp has become the de facto standard for indoor area lighting. However, this light source will be getting strong competition from the T5 fluorescent lamp. When used in combination with an electronic ballast, the T5 is even more energy efficient. With a number of desirable characteristics, the T5 fluorescent lamp is now the standard for fluorescent fixtures in Europe.

The T5 lamp provides an excellent solution for many low-profile lighting applications, such as behind casework, or in coves and valances, especially in the retail market. With only a 5/8-inch diameter, the T5 lamp is the thinnest general service fluorescent lamp available. High efficacy, (up to 104 lumens per watt), superior color rendering (85 CRI), and cooler operation makes the T5 lamp the perfect choice for furniture-integrated lighting, including display cases and shelves. The T5 lamp is produced in millimeter dimensions,which are designed to accommodate U.S. standard 2-ft, 3-ft, 4-ft and 5-ft lamps. The T5 millimeter sizes translate to 22 inches, 34 inches, 46 inches, and 58 inches. The T5 lamp will be available in high-output versions during 1999.

A number of fixture makers have adapted the T5 lamp to very thin low-profile linear indirect fluorescent lighting systems. One typical series offers a totally indirect slim fixture in 4-, 8-, 12- and 16-ft lengths. Aluminum cable supports the ceiling suspended units. Wall bracket models are a complement to the ambient area lighting system.

Current-generation fluorescent electronic ballasts offer tremendous flexibility in lighting levels and lighting design. In offices using standard fluorescent fixtures, dimmable ballasts can be adjusted to minimize computer screen glare and to meet changing needs, such as added or removed cubicle partitions or alteration in floor layouts. Continuous dimming of fluorescent ballasts can be done directly from the ac power line, eliminating the need for additional control leads. This reduces installation costs for new or retrofit applications.

Demand-side management programs helped develop the market in the early and mid-90s for the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), primarily as an incandescent lamp replacement. Now widely used in wattages from 5 W to over 40 W, the CFL's latest developments include ballasts that make dimming affordable. Look for these ballasts to be increasingly used.

You will also see the continuing reduction in size of CF ballasts and also the miniaturization of other fluorescent ballasts to accommodate the smaller diameter T5 and T2 linear lamps.

Basically, the industry will continue to specify three popular fluorescent systems: 85-CRI (daylight has a CRI of 100), 4-ft F32T8 lamps with high output characteristics, that is, electronic ballasts with a 1.15 to 1.20 ballast factor (BF). 40 W to 55 W biaxial lamps with electronic ballasts. triple-tube compact fluorescent (CF) lamps with electronic ballasts.

Further energy gains will come from the wider use of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, especially the metal halide source. New developments in metal halide arc-tube technology serve a line of medium-wattage MH lamps, with what is called a formed body, pulse start arc tube (either ceramic or quartz). The smaller, more spherical arc tube offers a number of performance advantages compared to the old pinch seal, probe start arc tube. Excellent color rendering, energy savings and quick payback time will, in many cases, justify replacing high pressure sodium or old design metal halide fixtures. In addition, three recent technologies will continue to gain a great deal of attention:

Three manufacturers now market induction (fluorescent) systems featuring long life, good color, and energy efficacy. They use either an induction coil to create a magnetic field or microwaves to excite the mercury in a lamp in order to produce ultraviolet energy that in turn excites a phosphor coating on the bulb's inside surface. Depending on the lamp, manufacturers make claims for lamp life from 10,000 to 100,000 hours. Lamp life is primarily limited by the degradation of the phosphors.

Called an electrodeless lamp because it lacks either a filament or a metal electrode, the sulfur lamp consists of a golf-ball sized (38mm) quartz glass sphere, or bulb, containing argon gas and a pinch of sulfur at less than one atmosphere. When bombarded with energy from a microwave system, the internal pressure increase to between two and five atmospheres of sulfur vapor, which forms the plasma medium that produces visible light by molecular radiation.

Fiber-optic and light guide illumination systems take advantage of the compact sulfur light source mentioned above. 3M Corp. now offers its Light Pipe technology for use with the Solar 1000 sulfur lamp from Fusion Lighting. The Light Pipe is a hollow acrylic or polycarbonate tube lined with a layer of optical lighting film having a nearly 99% reflectance efficiency. Recent advances in micro-machining and polymer processing of lighting film make the final breakthrough possible. Potential applications include aircraft hangers, tunnel lighting, parking facilities and hazardous location lighting.

Distributed controls, such as occupancy sensors, continue to be the most popular lighting control options today. And when they are integrated with building management systems, these controls can be even more effective.

The latest occupancy sensor products respond to the problems that have been experienced in the field, such as the failure to detect small motion and inappropriate or false activation of lamps. Dual-technology occupancy sensors, sometimes called hybrid devices, use two technologies, such as passive infrared and ultrasonic or passive infrared and microphonic. The latest occupancy recognition controls don't need the same degree of field adjustments because they have microprocessors to analyze room activity. A controls study made over two years at the Philip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco confirms the usefulness of daylighting controls for cutting lighting energy in commercial buildings. Daylight-linked photocontrols automatically dim the fluorescent area lighting in response to available daylight. Third-generation lighting controls now coming onto the market make it easier to set up lighting controls, and they provide additional benefits, including lighting energy monitoring capabilities, more accessible dimming, and the ability to respond to real-time utility pricing methods.

Lighting has played only a limited role in demand-side load management strategies, but when compared with traditional load management options, the trimming of lighting use can be a preferred strategy. For example, with electric utility deregulation, utilities want to shift the price fluctuation risk to the customer, as seen by an increase in time-of- use and real-time pricing.

replacing high pressure sodium or old design metal halide fixtures. In addition, three recent technologies will continue to gain a great deal of attention:

Three manufacturers now market induction (fluorescent) systems featuring long life, good color, and energy efficacy. They use either an induction coil to create a magnetic field or microwaves to excite the mercury in a lamp in order to produce ultraviolet energy that in turn excites a phosphor coating on the bulb's inside surface. Depending on the lamp, manufacturers make claims for lamp life from 10,000 to 100,000 hours. Lamp life is primarily limited by the degradation of the phosphors.

Called an electrodeless lamp because it lacks either a filament or a metal electrode, the sulfur lamp consists of a golf-ball sized (38mm) quartz glass sphere, or bulb, containing argon gas and a pinch of sulfur at less than one atmosphere. When bombarded with energy from a microwave system, the internal pressure increase to between two and five atmospheres of sulfur vapor, which forms the plasma medium that produces visible light by molecular radiation.

Fiber-optic and light guide illumination systems take advantage of the compact sulfur light source mentioned above. 3M Corp. now offers its Light Pipe technology for use with the Solar 1000 sulfur lamp from Fusion Lighting. The Light Pipe is a hollow acrylic or polycarbonate tube lined with a layer of optical lighting film having a nearly 99% reflectance efficiency. Recent advances in micro-machining and polymer processing of lighting film make the final breakthrough possible. Potential applications include aircraft hangers, tunnel lighting, parking facilities and hazardous location lighting.

Distributed controls, such as occupancy sensors, continue to be the most popular lighting control options today. And when they are integrated with building management systems, these controls can be even more effective.

The latest occupancy sensor products respond to the problems that have been experienced in the field, such as the failure to detect small motion and inappropriate or false activation of lamps. Dual-technology occupancy sensors, sometimes called hybrid devices, use two technologies, such as passive infrared and ultrasonic or passive infrared and microphonic. The latest occupancy recognition controls don't need the same degree of field adjustments because they have microprocessors to analyze room activity. A controls study made over two years at the Philip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco confirms the usefulness of daylighting controls for cutting lighting energy in commercial buildings. Daylight-linked photocontrols automatically dim the fluorescent area lighting in response to available daylight. Third-generation lighting controls now coming onto the market make it easier to set up lighting controls, and they provide additional benefits, including lighting energy monitoring capabilities, more accessible dimming, and the ability to respond to real-time utility pricing methods.

Lighting has played only a limited role in demand-side load management strategies, but when compared with traditional load management options, the trimming of lighting use can be a preferred strategy. For example, with electric utility deregulation, utilities want to shift the price fluctuation risk to the customer, as seen by an increase in time-of- use and real-time pricing.